EnglishНа русском

Державне управління: удосконалення та розвиток № 8, 2017

УДК: 351.86

 

S. Deyneko,

Сandidate for a degree

 

FINDING NEW IDEAS IN THE CONTEXT OF A SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXISTING THEORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE FIELD OF BORDER SECURITY

 

С. В. Дейнеко,

здобувач

 

ПОШУК НОВИХ ІДЕЙ У КОНТЕКСТІ НАУКОВОГО ОСМИСЛЕННЯ ІСНУЮЧОЇ ТЕОРІЇ ДЕРЖАВНОГО УПРАВЛІННЯ У СФЕРІ ПРИКОРДОННОЇ БЕЗПЕКИ

 

The article states that the basis of the national strategy is the restoration of the territorial integrity of Ukraine and the state control over the occupied territories of Donbass and Crimea. It was noted that, in order to build a successful national strategy for the return of uncontrolled territories to Ukraine, it is necessary to define clearly the initial conditions for that process and to define scientific approaches to the definition of the terms. It is justified that there are quite a lot of contradictions among leading scientists in the field of border security, independent experts, politicians on the issue of improvement of the conceptual and categorical basis of the science of state administration, on scientific approaches to definition of the terms of «border security», «state administration in the area of border security», «state administration of border security in Ukraine at the regional level», «state administration in the sphere of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border», «state policy in the sphere of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border», «state administration in the sphere of ensuring border security of Ukraine». The analysis of the scientific idea achievements on border security issues in Ukraine has made it possible to identify its certain characteristics. The peculiarities of public administration in the field of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border in the conditions of military aggression are clarified, consisting in purposeful, regulating influence of the state through public authorities, which are responsible for ensuring national security at the state border of Ukraine. on the protection and defense of the Ukrainian-Russian state border and the administrative border with the temporarily occupied Autonomous Republic of Crimea and its proper engineering and technical equipment in order to protect national interests at the state border. It has been established that the question of a strategic vision for the further reform of the state border protection institutions on the basis of the administrative and territorial principle and the scientific justification for the establishment and functioning of a three-level management system of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine has remained beyond the attention of the researchers.

 

У статті зазначено, що основою національної стратегії є відновлення територіальної цілісності України, контролю держави над окупованими територіями Донбасу і Криму. Наголошено, що для побудови успішної національної стратегії повернення неконтрольованих територій до складу України необхідно передусім чітко визначити вихідні умови цього процесу і визначитися стосовно наукових підходів до трактування понять. Обґрунтовано, що серед провідних вчених у сфері прикордонної безпеки, незалежних експертів, політичних діячів у питанні вдосконалення понятійно-категоріальної бази науки державного управління, стосовно наукових підходів до трактування понять “прикордонної безпеки”, “державного управління у сфері прикордонної безпеки”, “державного управління прикордонною безпекою України на регіональному рівні”, “державного управління у сфері безпеки українсько-російського державного кордону”, “державної політики у сфері безпеки українсько-російського державного кордону”, “державного управління у сфері забезпечення прикордонної безпеки України” існує досить багато суперечностей. Проведений аналіз досягнень наукової думки з питань прикордонної безпеки України надав змогу встановити певні характерні її особливості. З’ясовані особливості державного управління у сфері безпеки українсько-російського державного кордону в умовах військової агресії, що полягають у цілеспрямованому, регулюючому впливі держави через органи державної влади, до компетенції яких належать питання забезпечення національної безпеки на державному кордоні України, що передбачає вжиття комплексних заходів щодо охорони та оборони українсько-російського державного кордону й адміністративного кордону з тимчасово окупованою АР Крим та його належного інженерно-технічного облаштування з метою захисту національних інтересів на державному кордоні. Встановлено, що поза увагою дослідників залишилося питання стратегічного бачення подальшого реформування органів охорони державного кордону за адміністративно-територіальним принципом та наукового обгрунтування створення та функціонування трирівневої системи управління Державної прикордонної служби України.

 

Key words: national security, border security, state administration of border security, State security policy of the Ukrainian-Russian state border, restoration of control over the area of Ukrainian-Russian state border.

 

Ключові слова: національна безпека, прикордонна безпека, державне управління у сфері прикордонної безпеки, державна політика у сфері безпеки українсько-російського державного кордону, відновлення контролю над українсько-російською ділянкою державного кордону України.

 

 

Problem statement. The basis of the national strategy is the restoration of the territorial integrity of Ukraine and the state control over the occupied territories of Donbass and Crimea.

This is because the occupied territories have a significant share of the country’s economic, intellectual, natural and demographic resources; the restoration of territorial integrity will mark the complete victory of the Ukraine over the internal crisis and external aggression; overcoming the crisis will make it possible to launch large-scale economic and political integration and investment projects in the country.

In order to build a successful national strategy for the return of uncontrolled territories to Ukraine, it is necessary to define clearly the initial conditions for that process and to define scientific approaches to the definition of the terms. In particular, it is necessary to distinguish the actual state of affairs and its political-legal interpretation, it is a tool for influencing the situation imposed by the parties to the conflict in order to achieve their interests [1].

Consequently, safeguarding the territorial integrity of Ukraine, the inviolability of its state borders and the restoration of peace, as well as ensuring the inviolability of independence, are the main challenges of a modern state national security policy, which can be met only through effective interaction, synergy and concerted action by all subjects, at both the national and international levels.

Analysis of recent studies and publications shows that O. Ananin, O.Derkach, M. Lytvyn, P. Lysak, A. Makhnyuk, H. Magas, O. Melnikov, V. Nikiforenko, B. Oleksienko, V. Pleshko, D. Kuprienko, A. Sitsinskіy and other have made a significant contribution to the development of the theoretical and practical foundation of the State administration in the field of border security.

At the same time, there are practically no studies dealing from a systemic perspective with the state-administration aspects of the complex problem of ensuring national security in the sphere of Ukrainian-Russian state border security as a whole and the search for new ideas to ensure the restoration of control over the of Ukrainian-Russian state border, which makes it necessary to carry out further scientific research on this problem.

The aim of the article is to find new ideas in the context of scientific understanding of the existing theory of state administration in the field of border security.

Presentation of the main material. Nowadays there are quite a lot of contradictions among leading scientists in the field of border security, independent experts, politicians on the issue of improvement of the conceptual and categorical basis of the science of state administration, on scientific approaches to definition of the terms of «border security», «state administration in the area of border security», «state administration of border security in Ukraine at the regional level», «state administration in the sphere of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border», «state policy in the sphere of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border», «state administration in the sphere of ensuring border security of Ukraine».

O. Ananin noted that «... border security should be considered as a component of national security. It is achieved through political, organizational, legal, economic, military, intelligence, operational-technical, environmental, sanitary, safeguards and other measures implemented through the realizatation of the State policy of border security» [2].

The essence of the definition «border security» is most conceptually disclosed by M. Lytvyn, who defined it as: «......the protection of the vital interests of the individual, society and the state in its border area, in which society, the state and the individual are not harmed but, on the contrary, conditions are created for the realization of their interests; related to freedom of movement across the state border, offences are promptly detected and stopped, threats to national security at the border are countered and the causes of such threats are systematically addressed »[3].

O. Melnikov noted that «...border security - set of political, economic, military and law enforcement measures aimed at ensuring sovereignity, inviolability and territorial integrity of the country, which are implemented through the realization of the State’s border policy. Measures of border security realization are dictated by the priority of national interests, comprehensive analysis of global challenges and threats in the border sphere and the need to take timely and adequate measures to minimize them. Border security is an integral part of the State’s national security in protecting and ensuring its national interests and national security in the field of protection and safety of the state border. The main objects of border security are human rights and freedoms, spiritual and material values of society, constitutional order, sovereignty, territorial integrity, economic, political and military interests of the State. The main subjects of border security are public authorities, local governments, public organizations and citizens of Ukraine [4].

D. Kuprienko mentioned «... border security – it is a component of national security that has internal and external dimensions, which makes it possible to speak about its systemic nature. Taking into account the fact that the border security system is multi-component as well as the national security system, there is a need to ensure its functioning and development, in particular, to ensure the viability of such systemically important elements of the border security system as national interests» [5].

So, the analysis of the scientific thought achievements on the border security of Ukraine gave us the opportunity to establish certain characteristics:

firstly, the main objective of Ukraine’s border security is to ensure the sovereignty, inviolability and territorial integrity of the state, which are implemented through the realization of the State’s border policy;

secondly, Ukraine’s border security - is an integral part of national security that has internal and external dimensions, which makes it possible to speak about its systemic nature;

thirdly, the objects of border security are human rights and freedoms, the constitutional order, sovereignty, territorial integrity of Ukraine and the inviolability of its state borders, economic, political and military interests of the state;

fourthly, the subjects of border security are public authorities, whose competence includes issues of national security at the state border of Ukraine, local governments, public organizations and citizens of Ukraine;

fifthly, the main task of ensuring border security is the priority development of its system, which allowing us to consider the improvement of the state administration system in the field of border security.

O. Melnikov noted that «state administration in the sphere of border security is a set of state authorities, public organizations, officials and individual citizens organized by the state, who are carried out in accordance with current Ukrainian legislation and whose aims and tasks are to protect the sovereignty of the state, its territorial integrity and the inviolability of borders, to counteract external and internal threats at the state border. According to the author, the main objective of the state administration in the field of border security is to establish effective political-legal, economic, military law enforcement mechanisms and to guarantee the protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine» [6].

V. Nikiforenko noted that «state administration in the field of ensuring the border security of Ukraine is a set of executive bodies organized by the state, the competence of which includes issues of national security at the state border of Ukraine, and local governments, public organizations, officials and individual citizens endowed with relevant executive and administrative powers and responsibilities in this field, united by aims and objectives for the protection of state sovereignty, its territorial integrity and inviolability of state borders, counteraction to external and internal threats at the state border, realization of its political, trade, economic and other national interests, as well as restoration of the territorial integrity of the Ukraine, reintegration of temporarily occupied and uncontrolled territories [7].

V. Pleshko defined the essence «...state administration of border security in Ukraine at the regional level is direct executive and administrative influence, which is aimed at the implementation of urgent policy objectives in the field of border security, namely the activities of public authorities, local governments and other border security entities endowed with relevant executive and administrative powers and responsibilities in this area, entailing a coordinated approach between these bodies to ensure the security of a particular regional segment of the state border, and are determined by the priority of national interests of the individual, society and the state in the border field, comprehensive analysis of cross-border global challenges and threats at the state border on ensuring state sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of the state border of Ukraine» [8].

H. Mahas noted that «...public administration in the border field is a specific, legally defined, four-level activity of hierarchically subordinate bodies of the State Border Guard Service of executive-administrative and direct organizational nature, which affects on the activities of public authorities and local governments, organizations, businesses regardless of ownership, other legal and natural persons, whose activities are carried out in the border zone, controlled border areas, exclusive (marine) economic zone or related to the functioning of the state border of Ukraine [9].

P. Lysak mentioned «... features of public administration in the field of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border in conditions of military aggression, consisting in purposeful, regulatory influence of state through public authorities, whose competence includes issues of national security at the state border of Ukraine, which provides comprehensive measures to protect and defense of the Ukrainian-Russian state border and the administrative border with the temporarily occupied Autonomous Republic of Crimea and its proper engineering and technical equipment in order to protect national interests at the state border» [10].

O.Derkach noted «... the state policy in the field of border security» is a purposeful, long-term strategic activity of the state, related to planning and forecasting the formation of mechanisms for the implementation of this policy, defining the aims and priorities of public authorities whose competence includes border security, in order to build the state border and its infrastructure, create acceptable external and internal conditions for the protection of national interests of Ukraine at the state border, an effective border security system to combat internal and external challenges and threats in the field of state border security, protection of state sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Ukraine [11].

Thus, an analysis of the scientific writings of domestic researchers on concepts: «state administration in the area of border security», «state administration of border security in Ukraine at the regional level», «state administration in the sphere of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border», «state policy in the sphere of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border», «state administration in the sphere of ensuring border security of Ukraine» gave us the opportunity to establish certain of their characteristic features:

firstly, state administration in the field of ensuring the border security of Ukraine is a set of executive bodies organized by the state, the competence of which includes issues of national security at the state border of Ukraine, and local governments, public organizations, officials and individual citizens endowed with relevant executive and administrative powers and responsibilities in this field, united by aims and objectives for the protection of state sovereignty, its territorial integrity and inviolability of state borders, counteraction to external and internal threats at the state border, realization of its political, trade, economic and other national interests;

secondly, state administration of border security in Ukraine at the regional level is coordinated activities of public authorities to ensure the security of a particular regional segment of the state border;

thirdly, the objects of public administration in the field of border security are human rights and freedoms, the constitutional order, sovereignty, territorial integrity of Ukraine and the inviolability of its state borders, economic, political and military interests of the state;

fourthly, the subjects of public administration in the field of border security are public authorities, whose competence includes issues of national security at the state border of Ukraine, local governments, public organizations, officials and citizens of Ukraine;

fifthly, the main task of public administration in the field of border security is the protection of state sovereignty, its territorial integrity and inviolability of state borders, counteraction to external and internal threats at the state border, realization of its political, trade, economic and other national interests, as well as restoration of the territorial integrity of the Ukraine, reintegration of temporarily occupied and uncontrolled territories.

sixthly, find out the features of public administration in the field of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border in the conditions of military aggression, which consist in consisting in purposeful, regulatory influence of state through public authorities, whose competence includes issues of national security at the state border of Ukraine, which provides comprehensive measures to protect and defense of the Ukrainian-Russian state border and the administrative border with the temporarily occupied Autonomous Republic of Crimea and its proper engineering and technical equipment in order to protect national interests at the state border;

Finally, it is defined in the structural and substantive plan that the state policy in the field of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border is a system of officially defined aimes, objectives, priorities and principles of state activity on organization and legal regulation of border security policy and is an integral part of the National Security Strategy of Ukraine.

Thus, taking positive account of the opinion of the scientists in the field of border security on the question of improving the conceptual and categorical basis of the science of state administration, as regards the approaches to the definition of the above-mentioned concepts, the issue of strategic vision of further reform of state border protection bodies on the administrative-territorial principle and scientific substantiation of creation and functioning of the three-level management system of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine remained out of their attention.

Summarizing the above, we note that the foundations of the theory of state border policy in general and the theory of public administration on security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border in particular are under development. For the time being, Ukrainian scientists are only substantiating the theoretical and legal bases of the policy of ensuring national security and defence, and studies in which the problem of the security of the Russian-Ukrainian State border would be considered from the standpoint of a systemic approach are almost non-existent. There are also no generally accepted views and priorities regarding state mechanisms to ensure the restoration of control over the Ukrainian-Russian area of the state border of Ukraine.

Therefore, the urgent problem is the integration of efforts of scientists, politicians, managers in the search for fundamentally new ideas, political and managerial solutions in the context of understanding modern views on the essence, directions, ways, means, methods and techniques to restore control over the Ukrainian-Russian area of the state border of Ukraine on the basis of scientifically substantiated principles of public administration in the field of border security.

In our opinion, the prospect of further exploration of this issue is the study of the effectiveness of security (peacekeeping) missions to return uncontrolled territories to Ukraine.

 

References:

1. Horbulin, V.P. Vlasyk, O.S. Libanova, E.M. and Liashenko, O.M. (2015), Donbass and Crimea: the price of return [monografiya], available at: https://niss.gov.ua/sites/default/files/2015-12/Razom_kRym_donbas-4ab2b.pdf (Accessed 17 August 2017).

2. Ananin, A.V. (2011), “Border security of Ukraine in modern conditions”, available at: http://www.dy.nayka.com.ua/ (Accessed 17 August 2017).

3. Lytvyn, M.M. (2008), Ways of implementation law enforcement functions of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, Zb. nauk. pr. Nacz. akad. Derzh. pry`kordon. sluzhby` Ukrayiny`, vol. 43, pp. 1921.

4. Melnikov, O.G. (2008), “Integrated Border Management is a European model of border management for Ukraine”, Visny`k Derzhavnoyi sluzhby` Ukrayiny`, vol. 3, pp. 46–51.

5. Kuprienko, D.A. (2014), Basic concepts and categories in the field of border security ensurance, Zb. nauk. pr. Nacz. akad. Derzh. pry`kordon. sluzhby` Ukrayiny`, vol. 1(61), p. 362.

6. Melnikov, O.G. (2009), “Current issues of public administration in the field of border security in the context of European integration”, Visny`k Derzhavnoyi sluzhby` Ukrayiny`, vol. 1, pp. 4146.

7. Nikiforenko, V.S. (2014), The concept and essence of public administration in the field of border security of Ukraine”, Derzhavne upravlinnya: udoskonalennya ta rozvy`tok, available at: http://www.dy.nayka.com.ua/?n=12&y=2014 (Accessed 18 August 2017).

8. Pleshko, V.K. (2011), Regional aspects of public administration of border security: Ukrainian-Moldovan border”, Derzhavne upravlinnya: udoskonalennya ta rozvy`tok, available at: http://www.dy.nayka.com.ua/ (Accessed 18 August 2017).

9. Magas, H. (2013), Theoretical principles of public administration in the border field”, Aktual`ni problemy` derzhavnogo upravlinnya, vol. 1, pp. 2326.

10. Lysak, P.P. (2014), Current challenges and threats to Ukraine’s national security in the field of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border”, Investytsii: praktyka ta dosvid,vol. 23, pp. 137140.

11. Derkach, O.V. (2014), Priority areas for the implementation of state policy in the field of security of the Ukrainian-Russian state border, Investytsii: praktyka ta dosvid, vol. 18, pp. 141–144.

 

Стаття надійшла до редакції 20.08.2017 р.